Applications

ESEM imaging has a myriad of applications that span diverse fields: Archaeology and Physical Anthropology
Art/Museum Conservation
Biology, including Botany and Entomology
Cement Science
Fiber Technology
Forensic Science
Geological Sciences/Petroleum Geology
Hydrology, including Snow Science
Materials Science
Medicine
Microbiology
Microelectronics and Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Pharmaceutical
Soil Science

Archaeology and Physical Anthropology
Observation and analysis of uncoated archaeological artifacts and bones. Potential users: Archaeologists, researchers in physical anthropology.

Art/Museum Conservation
Depositional studies, observations of object surface degradation, elemental analysis of pigments or other artists' materials. Potential users: Art curators, art preservationists, art historians.

Biology, including Botany and Entomology
Examination of fresh or preserved specimens of plant seedlings, insects, mycelia, pollen grains, etc. Potential users: Museums of natural history, biological collections, biological research centers.

Cement Science
Fracture surface morphology, elemental impurity analysis. Potential users: Cement industry, adhesive and sealant industry, construction consultants.

Fiber Technology
Study of the effects of wetting and drying on different types of fibers, natural or synthetic; examination of fiber contaminants at high magnification. Potential users: Textile industry, pulp and paper industries, manufacturers of fiber-based materials.

Forensic
Observation of explosive residue, including gun powder; fiber and hair analysis. Potential users: Coroners, police departments, investigative units.

Geological Sciences/Petroleum Geology
Morphology of geological material such as microfossils, sediments, and mineral grains in their natural state, dry or wet. Potential users: Geologists, geochemical industry, oil, gas, and mineral extraction industries.

Hydrology, including Snow Science
Studies of snow scintering and disaggregation in real time; chemical characterization of impurities. Potential users: Snow hydrologists, resort managers, resource managers.

Materials Science
Study of polymers, ceramics (and other semiconductors that do not need to be coated to be observed), catalysts, food structure and properties, biomaterials, paper. Potential users: Polymer scientists, researchers in ceramic materials, food scientists, biomedical materials researchers and manufacturers, paper and paper product scientists and engineers.

Medicine
Observation of fresh and wet tissue. Potential users: Medical foundations that conduct research, research hospitals, schools of medicine.

Microbiology
Observation of bacterial growth on different types of substrate, both natural and produced in the lab. Potential users: Medical clinicians, food scientists, microbial ecologists, public health practitioners.

Microelectronics and Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems
Observation of integrated circuits, microsensors, microactuators and mechanical elements of MEMs. Potential users: Microelectronic and micromachining technology industries.

Pharmaceutical
Study of the dynamic physicochemical properties of drugs, such as swelling, dissolution, or disintegration, to understand the mechanisms of drug release. Potential users: Pharmaceutical companies with R & D departments.

Soil Science
Observation of untreated and treated soil samples at a magnification not previously possible. Potential users: Soil scientists, environmental consultants, soil microbiologists.