Governance Conference

"This workshop brought together a group of experts on corporate behavior, economics, law, and politics to examine different ways to supply governance treated as a matter of steering societies toward good things and away from bad things. We launched an ongoing effort to construct a general theory of governance covering private governance and public-private partnerships, as well as more traditional perspectives focusing on the roles that governments play."

— Oran Young

Co-Director, Program on Governance for Sustainable Development

Participants' Brief Biographical Information

(Alphabetical Listing)

Arun Agrawa, Associate Professor, SNRE, U. Michigan

Arun Agrawal teaches at the School of Natural Resources and Environment at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. His research focuses on the politics of development, institutional change, and environmental conservation. He has published a number of books and articles on indigenous knowledge, community-based conservation, common property, population and resources, and environmental identities. His recent interests include the decentralization of environmental policy, comparative analysis of common property institutions, and the relationship between poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation. Much of his work has centered on south Asia although recent projects also include other developing countries in Africa and Latin America. He is completing a book, tentatively titled "Environmental Politics and Institutional Choices in the Developing World, 1980-2005.”

David Baron, Professor, Stanford University

David P. Baron is the David S. and Ann M. Barlow Professor of Political Economy and Strategy in the Graduate School of Business of Stanford University. He is also Professor of Economics and Professor of Political Science by courtesy in the School of Humanities and Sciences. He conducts research in economics, political science, and strategy and the business environment. He has been at Stanford since 1981.

Benjamin Cashore, Associate Professor, Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies

Benjamin Cashore is Director of the Yale Program on Forest Policy and Governance with a joint courtesy appointment in Yale’s Department of Political Science. His major research interests include the emergence of private authority, its intersection with traditional governmental regulatory processes, and the role of firms, non-state actors, and governments in shaping these trends. His new book, Governing through Markets: Forest Certification and the Emergence of Non-state Authority (with Graeme Auld and Deanna Newsom) received the International Studies Association’s 2005 Sprout prize for best book on international environmental policy and politics. Published by Yale University Press in 2004, the book identifies the emergence of non-state market driven global environmental governance, and compares its support within European and North American forest sectors. The focus of his current work includes domestic forest policy regulations, firm responses to forest certification in the US forest sector, and the emergence of non-state market driven global governance generally.

Petra Christmann, Assistant Professor, Rutgers University

Petra Christmann (Ph.D., UCLA, 1997) is Assistant Professor of Management and Global Business at Rutgers Business School - Newark and New Brunswick. Petra teaches courses in business strategy, international management, and international political economy for undergraduate, graduate, and executive audiences. Her research on environmental strategies, firm self-regulation of environmental and social conduct, and international certifiable standards for firm conduct has been published in various journals including the Academy of Management Journal, the Journal of International Business Studies, the Journal of International Management and the Academy of Management Executive.

Magali Delmas, Associate Professor, Bren School of Environmental Science & Management,

University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB)

Magali Delmas' research is on the interaction between regulation and firms' competitive strategies. She is currently analyzing how alternative forms of environmental regulations, such as voluntary agreements and self-regulation, can impact firms' competitive advantage. Her work is published in policy and management journals such as the Strategic Management Journal, California Management Review, Production and Operations Management, Industrial and Corporate Change, Business and Politics, Business Strategy and the Environment, the Journal of High Technology Management Research, the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Policy Science, and the Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis. Prior to embarking on an academic career, she worked at the European Commission at the Directorate for Industry. She received her MA in political Science from the University of Paris Sorbonne, and her Ph.D. in Business Policy and Strategy from H.E.C. Graduate School of Management Paris.

William R. Freudenberg, Dehlsen Professor of Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB)

Dr. Freudenburg, the current 2004-05 President of the Rural Sociological Society, has devoted most of his career to the study of environment-society relationships. He is particularly well-known both for his work on coupled environment-society systems in general and for his work on more specific topics, including resource-dependent communities, the social impacts of environmental and technological change, and risk analysis. He has held official positions with the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Sociological Association, and the National Academy of Sciences, among others. He is the winner of Awards from the American Sociological Association, Rural Sociological Society, and Pacific Sociological Association, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, as well as being listed in numerous reference works, including Who's Who in Science and Engineering, Who's Who in America, and Who's Who in the World. Recent and forthcoming publications have focused on topics ranging from the social impacts of U.S. oil dependence to the polarized nature of debates over spotted owls, with a special emphasis on “disproportionality,” or the tendency for a major fraction of all environmental impacts to be associated with a surprisingly small fraction of the overall economy.

Clark C. Gibson, Professor of Political Science, University of California, San Diego

Professor Gibson studies the politics of development, democracy, and the environment. He has explored issues related to these topics in Africa, Central and South America, and the United States. The results of this work have appeared in journals such as Comparative Politics, World Development, Annual Review of Political Science, Social Science Quarterly, Human Ecology, Conservation Biology, Ecological Economics, and African Affairs. Professor Gibson's research about the politics of wildlife policy in Africa appears in his book, Politicians and Poachers: the Political Economy of Wildlife Policy in Africa (Cambridge 1999). Professor Gibson’s latest book analyses the political economy of foreign aid and offers suggestions for its improvement (Samaritan’s Dilemma: The Political Economy of Development Aid, Oxford 2005; co-authors E. Ostrom, K. Andersson, and S. Shivakumar). His current research focuses on the accountability between governments and citizens in Africa. His latest project examines the fiscal links between politicians and citizens in Africa: The Fiscal Foundations of Political Accountability in Africa (under review, Cambridge University Press) (with Barak D. Hoffman).

 Note: Attendance canceled due to family emergency

Dan Guttman, Visiting Professor, Tsinghua U and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China)

Virginia Haufler, Associate Professor of Government & Politics, University of Maryland, College Park

Virginia Haufler’s research and teaching focus on international political economy, global governance, private authority, and industry self-regulation. She is currently developing three projects: one on the role of the private sector in conflict and conflict prevention; another examining the regulatory role that insurers might perform for climate change action; and another analyzing the security plans of the private sector and of NGOs. She was Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and has been a visiting instructor at Cornell University, UCLA, Nankai University (China) and Budapest University of Economics. Her publications include A Public Role for the Private Sector: Industry Self Regulation in the Global Political Economy, Private Authority in International Affairs (with Claire Cutler and Tony Porter), and Dangerous Commerce: Insurance and the Management of International Risk.

Maria Ivanova, Assistant Professor of Government & Environmental Policy, College of William & Mary

Dr. Maria Ivanova is Director of the Global Environmental Governance Project at the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy. Her research focuses on international institutions and organizations, environmental policy at the national and global levels, and global governance. Her recent work analyzes the development and performance of the international environmental architecture with a focus on the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and international organizations with environmental portfolios. Maria teaches undergraduate, graduate, and professional courses in Global Environmental Governance, International Organizations, Climate Change, and Environmental Diplomacy. She is the co-editor of "Global Environmental Governance: Options & Opportunities" (with Daniel Esty) and author and co-author of articles and chapters on governance, globalization, and the environment. A Bulgarian national, Maria received a Bachelor's degree in European policy from Mount Holyoke College (summa cum laude) and graduate degrees in environmental management and international relations from Yale University. She has worked at the Environment Directorate of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Paris and at the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency in Stockholm on water quality standards and environmental regulatory reform in Russia and the New Independent States of the Former Soviet Union.

Madhu Khanna, Professor, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Madhu Khanna researches technology adoption and voluntary approaches to pollution control, welfare analysis of alternative policy instruments for environmental protection, economic growth and environmental quality issues, and the economics of carbon sequestration. She serves as a Fellow of the North American College Teachers of Agriculture and is a Scholar of the University of Illinois where she is also an affiliate of the Institute of Government and Public Affairs. Her recent publications include Conservation Capital and Sustainable Economic Growth, a 2005 Oxford Economic Paper co-authored with Harrington and Zilberman, and an article written with Anton and Deltas on incentives for environmental self-regulation and implications for toxic releases for the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. She gained her Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley.

Eun-Hee Kim, Ph.D. Candidate, Ross School of Business, University of Michigan

Eun-Hee Kim’s research interest lies in incentives for socially responsible corporate action and how these can be encouraged by governments and other institutions. Recently, with Professor Tom Lyon, Eun-Hee examined the Department of Energy’s 1605b program of voluntary disclosure program created under section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. She investigated (1) why firms participate, (2) what types of firms are more likely to participate, (3) whether the participants have a tendency to greenwash, and (4) the effectiveness of the program as a regulatory tool.

Andrew King, Associate Professor, Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth

Andrew A. King previously served as a faculty member at the Stern School of Business at New York University. He has held visiting positions at both the University of Michigan and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has authored numerous publications on technology strategy, environmental management, and industry self-regulation. Dr. King holds a Ph.D. in management from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, an M.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of California at Berkeley; and a B.A. in mechanical engineering from Brown University.

Matthew Kotchen, Assistant Professor, Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB)

Matthew Kotchen joined the Bren School faculty in the Fall of 2005, and holds an affiliated appointment in the UCSB Department of Economics. Kotchen held a previous faculty position for two years in the Department of Economics at Williams College in Williamstown, MA. He received his PhD in Economics from the University of Michigan, where he also earned a MS in Resource Policy and Behavior from the School of Natural Resources & Environment. His other degrees include a MS in Resource Economics and Policy from the University of Maine and a BA in Environmental Studies from the University of Vermont. Kotchen's primary research interests lie in the field of environmental and resource economics. Much of his current work relates to voluntary approaches for environmental protection. Using both theoretical and empirical methods, Kotchen explores the different ways that economic incentives for private provision of public goods can advance our understanding of environmentally related behaviors and public policies.

Thomas P. Lyon,    Dow Chemical Professor and Director of the Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise, University of Michigan

Thomas P. Lyon also serves on the faculties of the Ross School of Business and the School of Natural Resources and Environment, and directs the Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise, which unites the two schools in providing leadership for a sustainable future. Professor Lyon's primary research interest is the interplay between corporate strategy and public policy, especially with regard to energy and the environment. He has been a visiting professor at the University of Chicago and at the University of Bonn, and a Fulbright Scholar at the Scuola Sant' Anna in Pisa, Italy. He spent the academic year 2002/2003 as a Gilbert White Fellow at Resources for the Future in Washington, D.C., where he completed his book Corporate Environmentalism and Public Policy.

Eric Orts, Guardsmark Professor, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania

Eric Orts is also a professor of legal studies and business ethics with a joint appointment in management. He directs Wharton’s Environmental Management Program. His primary research and teaching interests are in corporate law and governance, environmental management and policy, and professional ethics. Prior to joining Wharton's faculty in 1991, Prof. Orts practiced law at Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison and was a Chemical Bank fellow in corporate social responsibility at Columbia Law School. He has taught at the University of Pennsylvania Law School and visited at NYU School of Law, UCLA School of Law, University of Michigan Law School, Tsinghua University, and Sydney Law School. He has also been visiting Fulbright professor in the law department of the University of Leuven and the Eugene P. Beard Faculty Fellow at Harvard University’s Center for Ethics and the Professions. Professor Orts is a graduate of Oberlin College (BA), the New School for Social Research (MA), the University of Michigan (JD), and Columbia University (JSD). He is a member of the bar of New York and the District of Columbia, an elected member of the American Law Institute, and belongs to a number of other professional and academic associations.

Gail Osherenko, Research Scientist, UCSB Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) 

Gail Osherenko focuses on law and policy, and teaches courses in coastal and ocean law and policy. Her research is centered around the role of marine spatial planning, or ocean zoning, and on effectiveness of the California coastal management regime. After receiving her Juris Doctor from UC Davis in 1975, she helped draft California’s Coastal Act and create the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area as legislative assistant in the office of Representative Anthony Beilenson. She then served as an appellate attorney in the Department of Justice, and as a staff attorney to the Council on Environmental Quality, before moving to Vermont and becoming emersed in Arctic studies. Her publications include three co-authored books: The Age of the Arctic (1989), Polar Politics (1993), and Siberian Survival: The Nenets and Their Story (1999). Her most recent paper “New Discourses on Ocean Rights: Property Rights, the Public Trust, and Ocean Management,” is available through Express’s Preprint Series,

Matthew Stilwell, Managing Director, GSD Program, Bren School, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB)

Matthew Stilwell is a public interest international lawyer working on issues of economic law, environmental law and sustainable development. He serves as European Director of the Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development, Senior Economic Law Advisor to the Basel Convention Secretariat. He previously served as a legal advisor to UNEP, Managing Attorney at Center for International Environmental Law, Special Fellow at UNITAR, Co-Director of the Duke-HEI Program on Global Policy & Governance and Fleishman Fellow at Duke University’s Terry Sanford Institute for Public Policy. He received an LLM from Columbia University, graduating as James Kent Scholar and receiving the Alfred A. Forsyth Prize, and a Bachelor of Laws (with Honors) and Economics from the University of Tasmania.

Robert Wilkinson,   Director, Water Policy Program, Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB)

Dr. Robert C. Wilkinson is also a Lecturer in the Environmental Studies Program at UCSB. Dr. Wilkinson’s teaching, research, and consulting focus on water policy, climate change, and environmental policy issues. He also serves as a Senior Fellow with the Rocky Mountain Institute. Dr. Wilkinson advises businesses, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations on water policy, climate research, and environmental policy issues. He served on the public advisory committee for California’s 2005 State Water Plan, and he represented the University of California on the Governor’s Task Force on Desalination. He acts as advisor to various agencies including the California Energy Commission, US DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the US EPA on water and climate research, and he served as coordinator for the climate impacts assessment of the California Region for the US Global Change Research Program and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. In 1990, Dr. Wilkinson established and directed the Graduate Program in Environmental Science and Policy at the Central European University based in Budapest, Hungary. He has worked extensively in Western Europe, every country of Central Europe from Albania through the Baltic States, and throughout the former Soviet Union including Siberia and Central Asia. He has also worked in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, South Africa, and China.

Oran R. Young, Professor, Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB)

Dr. Young specializes in the fields of Institutional and International Governance and Environmental Institutions, Dr. Young also serves as a Co-director of the Program on Governance for Sustainable Development at the Bren School, as Director of the Institute of Arctic Studies, and as Adjunct Professor of Political Science at the University of Tromsø in Norway. Dr. Young served for six years as Founding Chair of the Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States. Dr. Young then chaired the Scientific Steering Committee of the international project on the Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (IDGEC) under the auspices of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP). He served in this capacity until 2006 when he became Chair of the IHDP. In addition, Oran Young served for six years as vice-president of the International Arctic Science Committee and is currently a leader in the development of a decentralized University of the Arctic. Dr. Young's scientific work encompasses both basic research focusing on collective choice and social institutions and applied research dealing with issues pertaining to international environmental governance and to the Arctic as an international region. Dr. Young's work as author or co-author of over twenty books and numerous scholarly articles includes the recent titles: Governance in World Affairs; Creating Regimes: Arctic Accords and International Governance; International Governance: Protecting the Environment in a Stateless Society; Arctic Politics: Conflict and Cooperation in the Circumpolar North, and International Cooperation: Building Regimes for Natural Resources and the Environment.

Durwood Zaelke, Co-founder/Co-director, Program on Governance for Sustainable Development Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB)

Durwood Zaelke founded (1989) the Center for International Environmental Law, where he served as President until 2003. In addition, he founded and co-directed from 1989 until 2003 the International & Comparative Environmental Law Program at the American University law school. In addition to American University and the Bren School, he has taught at Yale Law School, Duke Law School, and Johns Hopkins. Mr. Zaelke is the founding Director of the Secretariat for the International Network for Environmental Compliance & Enforcement (, and the Managing Partner of the Washington, D.C. office of Zelle, Hofmann, Voelbel, Mason & Gette, LLP. In April 2005, Mr. Zaelke published Making Law Work: Environmental Compliance & Sustainable Development (Cameron May London 2005) (with Kaniaru & Kružíková), a two-volume analysis of the best literature on compliance and enforcement. In July 2003, Mr. Zaelke joined Dr. Steven O. Andersen in publishing Industry Genius: Inventions and People Protecting the Climate and Fragile Ozone Layer (Greenleaf UK, 2003). Industry Genius presents the inventiveness behind technological breakthroughs by ten global companies, including Honda, Seiko-Epson, Japan’s F-Center for Greenhouse Gas Alternatives, ST Microelectronics, Trane, Aviation Partners, Daimler Chrysler, and Alcoa Aluminum, and suggests how forward looking companies can pursue sustainable business strategies and avoid potentially costly liabilities. Mr. Zaelke is the author also of several other titles including the leading law school textbook on International Environmental Law & Policy (Foundation Press 2nd ed. 2002; with Hunter & Salzman).