More about Bruce Forsberg
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Coordenação de Pesquisas em Ecologia
Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil 69011-970



B.S. Michigan State University 1974 Biological Sciences
East Lansing, MI, USA
Ph.D. University of Minnesota 1981 Ecology (Limnology)
Minneapolis, MN, USA



Professional Experience:

  • 1988 – Present Senior Research Scientist, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da
    Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil
  • 1982 - 1992 Research Associate, University of Washington, Seattle
  • 1980 – 1982 Post-doctoral Fellow, University of Washington, Seattle

During the past 26 years, Dr. Forsberg has lived and worked in the Brazilian Amazon, where his research has focused on the ecology, limnology, biogeochemistry and management of large tropical river systems. He has published 66 scientific papers, co-authored five books and written numerous technical, workshop or committee reports. He teaches graduate courses in Limnology and Aquatic Ecosystems in INPA’s Graduate Program and has been major advisor to 17 M.S. and 11 Ph.D. students. Dr. Forsberg is currently on sabbatical at the Bren School of Environmental Science & Management at UCSB.




In Press

Marshall, B.G. and B.R. Forsberg (IN PRESS). Autotrophic energy sources for paracheirodon axelrodi (Osteichthyes, Characidae) in the middle Rio Negro, Central Amazon, Brazil In Hydrobiologia.

Kemenes, A., Forsberg, B. R. & J. M. Melack. (IN PRESS). Os fluxos de metano e gas carbonico por hidrelétricas tropicais e o aquecimento global. In Ciência Hoje.



Wilson. M.D., P.D. Bates, D. Alsdorf, B. Forsberg, M. Horritt, J. Melack, F. Frappart and J.S. Famglietti. 2007. Modeling large-scale inundation of Amazonian seasonally flooded wetlands. Geophys. Res. Let., 34: L15404, doi:10.1029/2007GL030156.

Kemenes, A., Forsberg, B. R. & J. M. Melack. 2007. Methane release below a tropical hydroelectric dam Geophys. Res. Let. 34: L12809, oi:10.1029/2007GL029479.

Trevisan, G. V. & B.R. Forsberg. 2007. Relationships among nitrogen and total phosphorus, algal biomass and zooplankton density in the central Amazonia lakes Hydrobiologia: 586: 357- 365.

Couceiro, S. R.M., Hamada, Neusa, Luz, S.L.B., Forsberg, B. R. & T.P. Pimentel. 2007.

Deforestation and sewage effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates in urban streams in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Hydrobiologia 575: 271-284.

Couceiro, S. R.M., Hamada, Neusa, Ferreira, R.L.M., Forsberg, B. R. & J.R. Silva. 2007. Domestic Sewage and Oil Spills in streams: Effects on Edaphic Invertebrates in flooded forest, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Water Air and Soil Pollution 180: 249-259.

Leite, R.G., Cañas, C., Forsberg, B. R., Bartham, R. & M. Goulding. 2007. Larvas dos Grandes Bagres Migradores, p. 127. Lima, Peru: INPA/ACCA.

Ferreira, E., Zuanon, J., Forsberg, B. R., Goulding, M., & S. B. Ferreira. 2007. Rio Branco: Peixes, Ecologia e conservação de Roraima. p. 201. Lima Peru: INPA/ACCA.



Couceira, Sheyla R M, Forsberg, B. R., Hamada, Neusa & R.L.M.Ferreira. 2006. Effects of an oil spill and domestic sewage release on the insect fauna of Cururu Stream, Manaus,Amazonas, Brazil In Brazilian Journal of Biology. , v.66, 35-44.

Belger, L. & B.R. Forsberg. 2006.Factors controlling Hg levels in two predatory fish species in the Negro river basin, Brazilian Amazon. Science of the Total Environment. , v.367, 451- 459.



Bevis, M. , Alsdorf, D., Kenndrick, E., Fortes, L.P., Forsberg, B. R., , Smalley Jr., R & J., Becker. 2005. Seasonal fluctuation in the mass of the Amazon River system and Earth's elastic response In Geophysical Research Letters., v.32. L16308, doi:10.1029/2005GL023491.



Melack, J.M., Hess, L.L., Gastil, M., Forsberg, B.R., Hamilton, S.k., Lima, I.B.T. e Novo, E.M.L.M. (2004) Regionalization of methane emissions in the Amazon Basin with microwave remote sensing. Global Change Biology 10: 1-15.



Diaz-Castro, J.G., Forsberg, B. R., Souza-Mosiman, M. e Laudares-Silva, R. 2003. Composição da comunidade de diatomaceas perifíticas do rio Jaú, Amazonas, Brasil. Acta Amazônica 33: 583-606.

Barthem, R., Goulding, M., Forsberg, B.R., Canas, C. and Ortega, H .2003. Aquatic Ecology of the Madre de Dios: Scientific Bases for Andes-Amazon Headwaters Conservation. Lima, Peru. Amazon Conservation Association, In English and Spanish. 117 p.

Goulding, M.; Canas, C., Barthem, R.forsberg, B. R., Ortega, H. 2003. Amazon Headwaters. Lima, Peru: Amazon conservation Association, In English and Spanish. 198 p.

Alsdorf, D, Lettenmaier, D., Vorosmarty, C., Forsberg, B.R. e outros. 2003. The need for global, satellite-based observations of terrestrial surface waters. EOS: Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 84: 269;275-276.

Pezeshki, S. R. DeLaune, R.D., Nyman, J.A., Catallo, W.J, Ochs, C. A., Milburn, S.A., Melack, J.M, Mertes, L. Hess, L. e Forsberg, B.R.. 2003. Wetland Biogeochemistry. pp. 125-156. Em Holland, M.M., Blood, E.R. e Shaffer, L.R. [eds.], Achieving Sustainable Freshwater Systems. Island Press,Washington.



Rosenqvist, A., Forsberg, B.R., Pimentel, T.P., Rausch, Y.A. and Richey, J.E. (2002). The use of spaceborne radar data to model inundation patterns and trace gas emissions in the Central Amazon floodplain. International Journal of Remote Sensing 23: 1303-1328.

Barbosa, A.C., Jardim, W. Dórea, J.G., Forsberg, B e Souza J. 2001. Hair mercury speciation as a function of gender, age and body mass index in inhabitants of the Negro river basin, Amazon, Brazil. Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40: 439- 444.

Forsberg, B. R., Castro, J.G.D. and E. Cargnin-Ferriera. (2001). The structure and functioning of the rio Negro ecosystem: Insights from the Jaú Project, pp. 125-144. In Chão, N. L., Petry, P., Prang, G. Sonneschein, L. and Tlusty, M. [eds.] Conservation and Management of Ornamental Fish Resources of the Rio Negro Basin, Amazonia, Brazil - Projeto Piaba. Editora da Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus.

Melack, J. and B.R. Forsberg. (2001). Biogeochemistry of Amazon floodplain lakes and associated wetlands, pp. 235-276. In McClain, M.E., Victoria R.L. and Richey, J.E. [eds.], The Biogeochemistry of the Amazon Basin. Oxford University Press.



Forsberg, B.R., Miranda, F. P., Rosenqvist, A. and Y. Hashimoto. (2000). Tectonic control of wetland distribution in the Amazon Basin. Quaternary International 72(1): 61-66 Benedito-Cecilio, E., Araujo-Lima, C.A.R.M., Forsberg, B.R., Bittencourt, M.M., And L.A. Martinelli. 2000. Carbon sources of Amazonian fisheries. Fisheries Management and Ecology 7: 305-314.

Cargnin-Ferreira, E. and B. R. Forsberg (2000). Trophic structure of macroinvertebrate Communities in the Jaú River system (Central Amazon, Brazil). Brazilian Journal of Ecology 3(2): 59-66



Forsberg, B.R., Hashimoto, Y., Rosenqvist, A. and de Miranda, F. P. 1999. Tectonic fault control of wetland distribution in the Central Amazon revealed by JERS-1 Radar Imagery. Bull. Goiano de Geog. 19(1): 79-80.

Silva-Forsberg, M. C., Forsberg, B. R. and V.K. Zeidemann. 1999. Mercury contamination in humans linked to river chemistry in the Amazon Basin. Ambio 28: 519-521.

Rosenqvist, A., Forsberg, B.R., Pimentel, T. P., and J. E. Richey. 1998. Using JERS-1 L- band SAR to estimate methane emissions from the Jaú River floodplain (Amazon/Brazil). Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, held in Seattle, USA, Jul 6-10, 1998, pp. 1623-1625.

Cargnin-Ferreira, E. and B.R. Forsberg. 1998. Estrutura trofica de comunidades de invertebradosAquáticos no rio Jaú (Amazonia Central): Implications para o manejo e conservação. Anais do I Congresso Brasileiro de Unidades de Conservação 2: 753- 763.

Pinheiro, P.R.C., Forsberg, B. R. And J. E. Richey, 1998. Fractionation and characterization of epilimnetic soluble organic phosphorus in an Amazon lake. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 26: 381.

Dunne, T., Mertz, L.A.K., Meade, R. H., Richey, J. E. e Forsberg, B. R. 1998. Exchange of sediment between the channel and floodplain of the Amazon River, Brazil Geological Society of America Bulletin. 110: 450-467.



Padovani, C. R., Forsberg, B. R. e T. P. Pimentel. 1995. Contaminação em peixes do rio Madeira: Resultados e recomendações para consumo humano. Acta Amazonica 25(1/2): 127-136.

Mertes, L. A. K., Daniel, D. L., Melack, J. M., Nelson, B., Martinelli, L. A. and B. R. Forsberg. 1995. Spatial patterns of hydrology, geomorphology and vegetation on the floodplain of the Amazon River in Brazil from a remote sensing perspective. Geomorphology 13: 215-232.

Benner, R., S. Opsahl, G. Chin-Leo, J. Richey and B. R. Forsberg. 1995. Bacterial carbon metabolism in the Amazon river system. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40: 1262-1270.

Forsberg, B. R., M. C. S. Forsberg, C. R. Padovani, E.Sargentini and O. Malm. 1995. High levels of mercury in fish and human hair from the Rio Negro basin (Brazilian Amazon): Natural background or anthropogenic contamination?, pp. 33-40. In Kato, H. and W. C. Pfeiffer [eds.] Proceedings of the International Workshop on Envorinmental Mercury Pollution and its Health Effects in the in the Amazon River Basin. National Institute for Minamata Disease/UFRJ.

Devol, . H., Forsberg, B. R., Richey, J. E. and T. P. Pimentel. 1995. Seasonal variation in chemical distributions in the Amazon (Solimoes) River: A multiyear time series. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 9: 307-328.

Quay, P. D., D. O. Wilbur, J. E. Richey, A. H. Devol R. Benner and B. R. Forsberg. (1995) The 18O/16O of dissolved oxygen in rivers and lakes in the Amazon Basin: Determining the ratio of respiration to photosynthesis in freshwaters. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40: 718-729.



Kuchler, I., N. Meikeli, and B. R. Forsberg. 1994. Molecular mass distributions of dissolved organic carbon and associated metals in waters of the rio Negro and rio Solimoes. Sci. Tot. Environ. 156: 207-216. Hedges J. I., G. L. Cowie, J. E. Richey, P. D. Quay, R. Benner, M. Strom and B. R. Forsberg.

1994. Origins and processing of organic matter in the Amazon river as indicated by carbohydrates and amino acids. Limnol. Oceanogr. 39: 743-761.
Martinelli, L. A., R. L. Victoria, B. R. Forsberg and J. E. Richey. 1994. Isotopic compositions of major carbon reservoirs in the Amazon floodplain. Internat. J. Ecol. Environ. Sciences 20: 31-46.

Devol, A. H., J. E. Richey, B. R. Forsberg and L. A. Martinelli. 1994. Environmental methane in the Amazon river floodplain, pp155-166. In Mitsch, W. J. [ed.] Global Wetlands. Elsevier, Amsterdam.



Forsberg, B. R., C. A. R. M. Araujo-Lima, L. A. Martinelli, R. L. Victoria, and J. A. Bonassi. 1993. Autotrophic carbon sources for fish of the Central Amazon. Ecology 74: 643- 652.

Victoria R. L., L. A. Martinelli, P. C. O. Trivelin, E. Matsui, B. R. Forsberg, J. E. Richey and A. H. Devol. 1992. The use of stable isotopes in studies of nutrient cycling: Carbon isotope composition of Amazon varzea sediments. Biotropica 24(2b): 240-249.

Forsberg, B. R., 1992. Mercury contamination in the Amazon: Another Minamata? Water Report 2(4): 6-8.

Forsberg, B. R., Padovani, C. R., Dinis, R., Porto, J. I. R., Silva, M. C., Xavier, L., Paulo, M. deQ. and V. P. de Alencar. 1992. Relatório preliminar, Projeto: Mercúrio no meio ambiente. Excursão III: 27 de setembro - 7 de outubro de 1991.



Richey, J. E., Victoria, R. L., Salati, E., and B. R. Forsberg. 1991. The biogeochemistry of a major river system: The Amazon case study, p. 57-74. In: Degens, E. T., Kempe, S. and J. E. Richey (eds.), Biogeochemistry of Major World Rivers. John Wiley and Sons.

Devol, A. H., Richey J. E., and B. R. Forsberg. 1991. Phosphorus in the Amazon River mainstem: Concentrations, forms and transport to the ocean, p. 9-23. In: Tiessen, H., D. Lopez-Hernandez and I. H. Salcedo [eds.]. Phosphorus cycles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, regional Workshop 3: South and Central America. SCOPE/Saskatchewan Inst. of Ped., Saskatoon, Sask.

Forsberg, B. R., Pimentel, T. P., and A. D. Nobre. 1991. Photosynthetic parameters for phytoplankton in Amazon floodplain lakes, April-May 1987. Verh. Int. Verein. Limnol. 24: 1188-1191.

Lacerda, L. D., Forsberg. B. R., and J. F. da F. Ramos. 1990. Ciclo biogeoquímico do mercúrio no ecossistema Amazônico - proposta de estudos prioritários, p. 281-289. In: Hacon, A., Lacerda, L. D., Pfeiffer, W. C. and Carvalho, D. [eds]. Riscos e Consequências do Uso do Mercúrio. FINEP/UFRJ/IBAMA/CNPq.

Devol, A. H., Richey, J. E., Forsberg, B. R., and L. A. Martinelli. 1990. Seasonal dynamics in methane emissions from the Amazon River Floodplain to the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res. 95: 16,417-16,426.

Richey, J. E., Hedges, J. E., Devol, A. H., Quay, P. D., Victoria, L. A., Martinelli, L. A., and B. R. Forsberg. 1990. Biogeochemistry of carbon in the Amazon River. Limnol. Oceanogr. 35: 352-371.



Martinelli, L. A., Devol, A. H., Forsberg. B. R., Victoria, R. L., Richey, J. E., and M. N. G. Ribeiro. 1989. Descarga de solidos totais do rio amazonas e seus principais tributários. Geochim. Brasil. 3: 141-148.

Martinelli, L. A., Victoria, R. L., Matsui, J. E., Richey, J. E., Forsberg, B. R., and J. Mortatti. 1989. The use of oxygen isotope composition to study water dynamics in Amazon floodplain lakes. pp. 91-101, In: Proceedings of a Regional Seminar for Latin America on the use of Isotope Techniques in Hydriology. IAEA-TECDOC-502.

Martinelli, L. A., Devol, A. H., Richey, J. E., and B. R. Forsberg. 1989. Suspended sediment load in the Amazon Basin: An overview. GeoJournal 19: 381-390.

Victoria, R. L., Martinelli, L. A., Richey, J. E., Devol, A. H., Forsberg, B. R., and M. N. G. Ribeiro. 1989. Spatial and temporal variations in Soil Chemistry on the Amazon Floodplain. GeoJournal 19: 45-52.

Forsberg, B. R., Godoy, J. M., Victoria, R. L., and L. A. Martinelli.1989. Development and erosion in the Brazilian Amazon: A geochronological case study. GeoJournal 19: 399- 405.

Richey, J. E., Mertes, L. A. K., Victoria R. L., Forsberg, B. R., Dunne, T., Oliveira E. and A. C. Tancredi. 1989. Sources and routing of the Amazon River floodwave. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 3: 191-204.



Ferreira, J. R., Devol, A. H., Martinelli, L. A., Forsberg, B. R., Victoria, R. L., Richey, J. E., and J. Mortatti. 1988. Chemical composition of the Madeira river: Seasonal trends and total transport. Mitt. Geol-Palaont. Inst. 66: 63-75.

Martinelli, L. A., Ferreira, J. R., Forsberg, B. R., and R. L. Victoria. 1988. Mercury contamination in the Amazon: A gold rush consequence. Ambio 17:252-254.

Martinelli, L. A., Ferreira, R. L., Mortatti, J., Forsberg B. R., Bonassi, J. A., de Oliveira, E, and A. C. Tancredi 1988. Fluxo de nutrientes em alguns rios do Estado de Rondonia, Bacia do Rio Madeira. Acta Limnologica Brasiliense 2: 911-930.

Martinelli, L. A., Victória, R. L., Matsui, E. Forsberg, B. R. and A. A. Mozeto 1988. Utilização das variaço~es naturais de 13C no estudo de cadeias alimentares em ambientes aquáticos: princípios e perspectivas. Acta Limnologica Brasiliense. 2: 859-882.

Forsberg, B. R., Devol, A. H., Richey, J. E., Martinelli, L. A. and H. dos Santos. 1988. Factors controlling nutrient concentrations in Amazon floodplain lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33: 41-56.



Araujo-Lima, C. A. R. M., Forsberg, B. R., Victoria, R., and L. Martinelli. 1986. Energy sources for detritivorous fishes in the Amazon. Science 234: 1256-1258.

Forsberg, B. R. 1985. The fate of planktonic primary production. Limnol. Oceanogr. 30: 807-819.

Tundisi, J. G., Forsberg, B. R., Devol, A. H., Zaret, T. M., Tundisi, T. M., Dos Santos, A., Ribeiro, J. S., and E. Hardy. 1984. Mixing patterns in Amazon Lakes. Hydrobiol. 108: 3-15.

Devol, A. H., Zaret, T. M., and B. R. Forsberg. 1984. Sedimentary organic matter diagenesis and its relation to the carbon budget of Amazon floodplain lakes. Int. Ver. Theor. Angew. Limnol. Verh. 22: 1299-1304.

Forsberg, B. R. 1984. Nutrient processing in Amazon floodplain lakes. Int. Ver. Theor. Angew. Limnol. Verh. 22: 1294-1298.



Devol, A. H., Dos Santos, A., Forsberg, B. R., and T. M. Zaret. 1983. Nutrient addition experiments in Lago Jacaretinga, Central Amazon, Brazil: 2. The effect of humic and fulvic acids. Hydrobiol. 109: 97-103.

Shapiro, J., Forsberg, B. R., Lamarra, V., Lindmark, G., Lynch, M., Smeltzer, E., and G. Zoto. 1982. Experiments and Experiences in Biomanipulation: Studies of ways to reduce algal abundance and eliminate bluegreens. EPA-600/3-82-096 Corvallis Env. Research Laboratory, U.S.EPA, Corvalllis, OR.

Forsberg, B. R., and J. Shapiro. 1981. Predicting the algal response to destratification, p.134- 139. In Restoration of Lakes and Inland Waters, U.S.EPA report 440/5-81-010.

Forsberg, B. R. 1981. A general theory of phytoplankton growth for field applications. Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota, 146p.

Forsberg, B. R., and J. Shapiro. 1980. The effects of artificial destratification on algal populations, p. 851-864. In H. G. Stephan [ed.], Proceedings of a Symposium on Surface Water Impoundments, Univ. of Minnesota, ASCE, AWRA, AGU.